types of french bread

A Baker’s Guide to the 12 Types of French Bread

Bread, deeply ingrained in French culture, offers more than just sustenance. As you explore the various types of French bread, each variety tells a tale of history, region, and culinary expertise. This article unveils these delectable narratives.

Basic Ingredients and Techniques for French Bread



  • Flour: The backbone of most bread, the type of flour can vary. While all-purpose flour is common, bread flour, which has a higher protein content, can also be used. There are also whole wheat, rye, and other varieties for specific types of bread.
  • Water: It not only hydrates the flour but also activates the yeast. The temperature of the water is essential; lukewarm water is typically used to ensure the yeast functions optimally.
  • Yeast: This is a leavening agent. It ferments the sugars present in the dough, producing carbon dioxide. This causes the bread to rise. There are various types of yeast, with fresh yeast and active dry yeast being the most common in French bread baking.
  • Salt: Beyond flavoring, salt regulates yeast activity and strengthens the dough’s gluten structure.


  • Mixing: Combining the ingredients to form a dough. This can be done by hand or with a mixer. The goal is to ensure all ingredients are well-incorporated.
  • Kneading: This process develops the gluten in the dough, making it elastic and allowing the bread to hold its shape and rise properly. Kneading can be done by hand on a floured surface or with a dough hook in a mixer.
  • Fermentation (First Rise): Once kneaded, the dough is left to rise. This is when the yeast consumes the sugars and produces carbon dioxide, causing the dough to expand. This step can last anywhere from an hour to several hours, depending on the recipe.
  • Shaping: After the first rise, the dough is deflated and shaped into the desired bread form, be it a baguette, boule, or any other shape.
  • Proofing (Second Rise): Post-shaping, the dough is left to rise again. This secondary rise ensures the bread has a light, airy crumb once baked.
  • Scoring: Just before baking, slashes are made on the dough’s surface using a sharp knife or a baker’s lame. This not only adds aesthetic appeal but also guides the dough’s expansion in the oven.
  • Baking: The dough is baked in a preheated oven. Initial high temperatures are often used to achieve a good oven spring (rapid rise), followed by reduced temperatures to ensure even cooking.
  • Cooling: Once baked, bread is placed on a cooling rack. This step is vital, as it prevents the bread from becoming soggy due to trapped steam.

12 Types of French Bread

1. Baguette


An iconic symbol of France, the baguette evokes images of Parisian boulevards, morning coffee, and intimate boulangeries. With a golden, crackly crust and a tender, airy interior, its history is deeply embedded in French culture. The baguette’s variations, from the classic traditional type to ones made with a Poolish starter, showcase the versatility of this beloved bread.

Pairing: Ideal for open-faced sandwiches, cheese boards, or simply spread with butter and honey for breakfast.

2. Bâtard


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Often considered the baguette’s robust sibling, the Bâtard offers a similar taste experience but in a shorter and plumper form. With a thick golden crust encasing its soft, chewy interior, it’s perfect for those who cherish the juxtaposition of crunch and softness. Whether sliced for bruschetta or simply torn apart to accompany a hearty stew, the Bâtard is a testament to the beauty of simplicity.

Pairing: Perfect for hearty sandwiches, or toasted and topped with avocado and poached eggs for breakfast.

3. Boule


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The name “Boule,” meaning ball in French, captures the essence of this rustic, round loaf. Its crust, thicker and chewier than that of a baguette, protects a soft, pillowy inside. Variations abound, with some boules incorporating grains like whole wheat or rye, giving them a nuttier, earthier flavor.

Perfect as a centerpiece, the Boule can be hollowed out and used as an edible bowl for soups or dips.

Pairing: Hollowed out as an edible bowl for soups or smeared with rich pâtés for breakfast.

4. Pain Complet


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The wholesome choice for those seeking a more nutritious option, Pain Complet, or “whole wheat bread,” brings forth the deep, rich flavors of whole grains. With a slightly denser texture and a mosaic of nutty undertones, it’s not only a healthier choice but also a flavorful journey that pairs wonderfully with strong cheeses or robust jams.

Pairing: A side for grilled meats or fish, or paired with nut butters for breakfast.

5. Pain de Campagne


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Evoking the charm of French countryside kitchens, Pain de Campagne, or French Country Bread, is a versatile loaf that marries the best elements of the baguette and boule. Often sporting a slightly scored or rustic crust, its interior is soft with a slight chew, making it perfect for sandwiches or mopping up the sauces of hearty dishes.

Pairing: Ripped apart and served alongside rustic dishes, or topped with smoked salmon and cream cheese for breakfast.

6. Pain Poilâne


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Hailing from the legendary Poilâne bakery, this bread is an artisanal masterpiece. With a substantial, chewy crust adorned with the emblematic “P” and a slightly tangy interior courtesy of its sourdough base, Pain Poilâne is a beautiful blend of tradition, art, and flavor. Often weighing in at a hefty four pounds, slices of this bread are perfect canvases for both sweet and savory toppings.

Pairing: Paired with hearty casseroles or toasted with olive oil and sea salt for breakfast.

7. Fougasse


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Reminiscent of ancient Roman flatbreads, Fougasse is the Provençal answer to Italy’s focaccia. Characterized by its unique leaf or ear-like shape, it’s not just a bread but a work of edible art. Its crisp exterior and soft inside provide the perfect backdrop for various ingredients, be it the salty bite of olives, the rich tang of sundried tomatoes, or the aromatic whispers of rosemary and other herbs.

Pairing: A side for dishes like ratatouille or served with Mediterranean-style scrambled eggs.

8. Pain d’épi

Pain d'épi

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A bread that’s as much about tradition as it is about taste, Pain d’épi, or “wheat stalk bread,” is a feast for the eyes. Shaped to resemble a wheat stalk, it’s often the centerpiece of festive tables during the French holiday season, symbolizing prosperity, harvest, and communal celebration. Its light, airy crumb and crisp crust make it a delightful accompaniment to any meal.

Pairing: As a centerpiece for festive occasions, paired with roasted meats or seafood platters.

9. Pain Viennois

Pain Viennois

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Bridging the gap between bread and pastry, Pain Viennois is a soft, slightly sweet loaf that whispers tales of Viennese coffee houses and leisurely breakfasts.

Sometimes dotted with chocolate chips or plump raisins, its delicate crumb and buttery aroma make it a favorite choice not just for breakfast, but also for teatime treats. Paired with a soft pat of butter or a smear of jam, it becomes a moment of indulgence.

Pairing: Toasted with butter or used for sweet-and-savory sandwiches like ham and Brie with fig jam.

10. Pain de Mie

Pain de Mie

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The epitome of refinement in the world of bread, Pain de Mie, with its soft, velvety crust and even, fine crumb, is the aristocrat of French sandwich loaves. Recognizable by its square shape, often baked in a Pullman tin, its delicate sweetness and buttery undertones make it ideal for gourmet sandwiches or just a luxurious toast to start the day.

Pairing: Ideal for French toast or club sandwiches.

11. Brioche


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Brioche is where bread meets luxury. Infused with butter, eggs, and sometimes a touch of sugar, its golden crust gives way to a tender, almost cake-like interior. Whether savored as a base for rich French toast, filled with pastry cream and fruits, or simply enjoyed slice by slice with a morning coffee, brioche is a celebration of French baking finesse.

Pairing: Paired with creamy dishes like eggs benedict or as a base for luxurious sliders.

12. Other Notable French Breads


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  • Pain aux Noix: A symphony of textures, this bread brims with nuts, offering delightful crunches in every bite, offset by the softness of the bread itself. Best paired with cheeses, especially blue or aged ones.
  • Pain aux Raisins: More than just bread, this spiral delight, swirled with raisins and occasionally brushed with pastry cream, leans into dessert territory, making every bite a sweet rendezvous. You can enjoy it with coffee or tea.
  • Pain Aux Olives: Evoking the sunny terrains of southern France, this savory bread comes alive with the vibrant flavors of embedded olives, making it a perfect pairing for charcuterie boards and Mediterranean salads.

These breads, each with its own story and flavor profile, further the narrative of France’s rich and varied baking tradition. They invite one to experience not just their taste, but also the history, artistry, and passion that goes into making them.


The types of French bread weave tales of tradition, regions, and culinary passion. Each loaf invites a journey, a bite into the heart of French culture. Whether it’s the crunch of a baguette or the softness of a brioche, French bread promises a gourmet adventure.

AboutCorinne Switzer

Corinne is an avid reader and takes a keen interest in conspiracy theories. When not busy with her day job, she likes to indulge the writer in her and pens columns on a wide range of topics that cover everything from entertainment, healthy living to healthcare and more.